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Leslie Goldman Maaser, D.M.A. is the Affiliate Studio Instructor of Flute at Denison University as well as the Director of the Denison University Flute Ensemble. She is the Principal Flutist of the Newark-Granville Symphony Orchestra, where she also serves as Chairperson of the Orchestra Committee and Education Director. In January 2008, she was a featured soloist with the orchestra.
Dr. Maaser is a founding member of the Columbus Camerata Woodwind Quintet, and flutist/piccoloist with Ohio Capital Winds. In 2007, the Columbus Camerata was featured at the Ohio Music Education Association Convention for their clinic/performance on new woodwind quintet literature, and as guest artists at a featured recital at Fayetteville State University in North Carolina.
Leslie has been a member of the Columbus Bach Ensemble, the Welsh Hills Symphony Orchestra, and has performed with the Opera Columbus’ Light Opera Orchestra, and the Columbus Symphony. She has also performed with the Opera Theatre of Rochester (NY), Madison (WI) Symphony Orchestra, Wisconsin Chamber Orchestra, the Rome Festival Orchestra, and the East Lansing Opera Company. She has performed as a soloist and served as a clinician throughout the midwest, including as a featured soloist with the Welsh Hills Symphony Orchestra, Columbus Bach Ensemble, Wright State University Chamber Orchestra, Wright State University Wind Ensemble, Greece Symphony Orchestra (NY), as well as at the Ohio Music Education Association Conference, Ohio Wesleyan University, the Chamber Music Connection, Denison University’s Contemporary Music Festival, Central Ohio’s Contemporary Music Festival, the University of Iowa, University of Northern Iowa, Schoolcraft College, State University of New York at Brockport, and Indiana State University.
As a research competition winner of the National Flute Association, Dr. Maaser was selected to present and perform excerpts of her doctoral thesis at the 2002 National Flute Convention in Washington, D.C., and was selected for publication in the 2002 summer issue of the Flutist Quarterly. She performed the U.S. premiers of Elizabeth Raum’s Aegean Perspective at the 2000 National Flute Convention in Columbus, Ohio. Leslie also performed as a competition winner with the National Flute Association Professional Flute Choir at the National Flute Convention
Leslie’s major teachers are Katherine Borst Jones, Ervin Monroe, Robert Cole, and Israel Borouchoff. In addition, she has studied with prominent artists such as Peter Lloyd, former Principal Flutist of the London Symphony, and Walfrid Kujala, Professor of Flute at Northwestern University and Piccolo Emeritus of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Leslie has performed in master classes of flute icons such as Jean-Pierre Rampal and Jeanne Baxtresser. She holds a Doctor of Musical Arts degree in flute performance from The Ohio State University. As a fellowship recipient, she earned her Master of Music degree from the University of Wisconsin in Madison, and her Bachelor of Music degree from Michigan State University. Leslie Maaser was formerly on the music faculties of Wright State University, Mt. Vernon Nazarene College, Valparaiso University, Luther College, and has taught at The Ohio State University both as a graduate assistant as well as a sabbatical replacement for Professor Katherine Borst Jones.
Aimee serves as the Associate Director of Campus Leadership & Involvement (CLIC) and is the newest team member beginning in July 2011. She is responsible for the oversight of Fraternity and Sorority Life (F/SL). Aimee serves as the faculty advisor to the Interfraternity Council (IFC), National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC), Panhellenic Council (PHC), and the Multicultural Greek Council (MGC).
Prior to Denison, Aimee worked at The University of Texas at El Paso as Coordinator within the Student Development Center. She has experience in fraternity/sorority life, student organization development, leadership initiatives, women’s resource center, LGBT programming and support, and campus programming boards. Aimee received her Master of Arts in Education, Higher Education Administration from the University of Akron and a Bachelor of Science in Political Science/Criminal Justice at Akron as well. During her time at Akron, Aimee was awarded an internship in Washington, DC with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) through the Ray C. Bliss Institute of Applied Politics.
She is a member of Alpha Gamma Delta International Women’s Fraternity, Alpha Phi Omega National Service Fraternity, College Student Educators International (ACPA), the National Association for Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA), Association for Fraternity/Sorority Advisors (AFA), as well as the Ohio College Personnel Association (OCPA). She is the recipient of UTEP’s Rainbow Graduation Ally of the Year Award in 2010.
Diana Adesola Mafe teaches postcolonial literatures with an emphasis on contemporary Anglophone African literatures. She also teaches African American literatures and courses in Women’s Studies. Her work tracks the literary and cinematic roles of and for women of color in African and American discourses. She has published articles in Research in African Literatures, American Drama, English Academy Review, Frontiers, Safundi, Camera Obscura, and African Women Writing Resistance. Her book, Mixed Race Stereotypes in South African and American Literature: Coloring Outside the (Black and White) Lines (Palgrave Macmillan 2013), examines the literary stereotype of the “tragic mulatto” from a transnational perspective.
Damien Mahiet (MA/PhD musicology, Cornell University; MA political thought, Sciences Po Paris) joined the faculty of the Department of Music in 2010 and of the International Studies Program in 2011. In 2012-2013, he was a fellow of the Mahindra Humanities Center at Harvard University and the recipient of a Franklin Research Grant from the American Philosophical Society.
His research centers on the role of music in Western political regimes and lives. His first book project, in preparation under the title "The Concert of Nations: The Musical Origins of International Harmony", explores music-making's contributions to the conception of international relations and the practice of diplomacy.
Damien served as director of the Denison University Orchestra (2010-2012) and the Cornell Summer Orchestra (2008), and as assistant conductor of the Cornell Chamber Orchestra (2008-2009). A student of Chris Younghoon Kim (Cornell University), he took part in master classes with Kenneth Kiesler (University of Michigan), Alexander Polishchuk (St. Petersburg Conservatory), and Mark Stringer (University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna). He has also received private instruction from Daniel Boico (former assistant conductor of the New York Philharmonic). Damien began his musical studies as a choirboy at the Maitrise de Radio-France and a piano student in the city conservatories of Paris. Piano teachers include Veronique Barry-Roux, Jacques Rouvier, Jean-Marie Cottet, Eliza Garth, Brian Ganz, Malcolm Bilson, and Xak Bjerken.
- Forthcoming. Must We Choose between Democracy and Music? On a Curious Silence in Tocqueville's "Democracy in America". History of European Ideas.
- 2013. Charles Burney; or, the Philosophical Misfortune of a Liberal Musician. Eighteenth-Century Music 10/1: 41-63.
- 2009. Faire groupe, être soi-même (1936-1939): Daniel-Lesur, André Jolivet et l’élaboration du groupe Jeune France. In Cécile Auzolle (ed.), Regards sur Daniel-Lesur. Compositeur et humaniste (1908-2002)(pp. 141-52). Paris, Presses de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne.
- With Jean-Michel Bardez, he is the co-editor of the series Musique/Pouvoirs published by Delatour (France): http://www.editions-delatour.com/en/28-musique-pouvoirs
A Denison education makes a real difference in students’ lives, preparing them for personal and professional success amid a world of possibilities—a world where they in turn make a difference.
Although I retired from teaching in 1999, I am still pursuing some research interests in the earth and planetary sciences. Currently my research pursuits are: (1) gravitational capture potential for planets, (2) explanation of many of the major features of the Earth and Moon via the process of gravitational capture of a lunar-mass planetoid from a heliocentric orbit into a geocentric orbit in a prograde orientation, (3) explanation of the major features of planet Venus via a gravitational capture scenario in which a 0.5 moon-mass body is captured from a heliocentric orbit into a venocentric orbit in the retrograde orientation, (4) explanation of many of the features of the Neptune-Triton system via gravitational capture of a triton-mass body in the retrograde orientation, (5) explanation of several of the unique features of the Earth in terms of a capture origin of the Earth-Moon system and the subsequent evolution of the lunar orbit to the present condition.
Gravitational Capture Potential for Planets:
I have been interested in the origin of planet-satellite systems for several decades. After coming to Denison University in 1972, I got associated with Ronald Winters and Michael Mickelson (Physics and Astronomy Dept.) and we did some joint projects in the planetary sciences. From 1985 to 1988 a very talented physics student, David Mehringer (DU,’88), got associated with the project and implemented an energy-dissipation subroutine for a three-body numerical simulation program (fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration procedure) which made gravitational capture simulations possible. Our first set of capture simulations (in the Spring of 1987) was for capture of a lunar-mass planetoid from an earth-like heliocentric orbit into a geocentric orbit. The results were exciting in that no one had ever done this before!
In the era of 1990-1993, two physics/computer science students (Wentao Chen, DU,’92 and Albert Liau, DU,’93) made minor corrections to the numerical code and developed programs for plotting tidal amplitudes as well as tidal ranges directly from the geocentric orbital data. In general, these three very talented undergraduate students (Mehringer, Chen, and Liau) were super important in the development of this planetoid capture project. It is interesting to note here that of all the articles in the planetary science literature on gravitational capture (or articles mentioning the process before 1987) no investigator had done a successful numerical simulation of capture. I think the main reason that it had not been done is because of some fundamental paradoxes that are associated with gravitational capture processes in general.
(NOTE: A good summary of lunar origin models can be found in a book by Peter Cadogan published in 1981 titled “The Moon: Our Sister Planet”. This book was published before the Giant Impact Model became dominant.)
The first paradox is that the planetoid (the smaller body) must absorb most of the energy for its own capture. Successful capture is a matter of h’s and Q’s. The h (displacement Love number) is a measure of the deformability of the planet or planetoid and the Q (specific dissipation factor) is a measure of the quantity of the energy stored by tidal distortion during a close gravitational encounter that is subsequently dissipated during a single encounter (a tidal oscillation). The fraction of stored energy that is dissipated during one tidal oscillation is 1/Q. A reasonably warm lunar-mass planetoid could have an h in the range of 0.1 to 0.3. For capture the Q of this planetoid must be very low: 1, 2, or 3. In contrast to the planetoid, the planet is a passive bystander furnishing a strong gravitational field for tidal deformation of the planetoid. The h of the Earth at present is about 0.54 (a very deformable body). The Q of the Earth is very high (about 200). The h and Q for the primitive Earth (about 4.0 billion years ago) would not have been greatly different (perhaps h=0.7 and Q=200). The bottom line is that the earth, at no time in its history, would be an effective energy sink for tidal capture.
A second paradox is that larger planetoids are more capturable than smaller ones. The reason for this is that as the planetoid radius decreases, the h for storing the energy for capture increases. Thus, if all candidate planetoids of lunar density have a low Q value, only those larger than about 0.2 lunar mass can temporarily store, by tidal distortion, the energy for their own capture.
A third paradox is that "cool" planetoids are more capturable than "hot" planetoids. Martin Ross and Gerald Schubert did a set of calculations at UCLA in the middle 1980’s on “Q vs. Viscosity” of a planetoid. Their conclusions were that a low Q is associated with an intermediate value of planetary viscosity. In other words, if a body is too cold, it will be too rigid (high viscosity) to absorb much energy. If a body is too hot (low viscosity), the body can be easily deformed but it will be too “mushy” to dissipate more than a small fraction of the tidal energy of any one tidal oscillation. The low Q values, then, are associated with an intermediate viscosity value. A reasonable assumption is that for a lunar-like planetoid the intermediate viscosity condition would be when the lowest melting component of the lunar magma ocean (probably at a depth of about 200 km) would be just below the melting point. Thus, with an h in the range of 0.20 to 0.25 and a Q near 1, sufficient energy could be dissipated for capture during one tidal oscillation. These are the plantoid body conditions necessary for tidal capture.
I have now calculated and plotted literally thousands of successful capture scenarios and about as many encounter sequences that result in collision on some subsequent encounter as well as a number of escape sequences. The results of this large quantity of capture, collision and escape scenarios have led to the concept of a stable capture Stable Capture Zone (SCZ) is a restricted region of parameter space (planet anomaly vs. planetoid orbital eccentricity) in which capture can occur IF sufficient energy is dissipated in a combination of interacting bodies to insert the body of the planetoid into a geocentric orbit. The philosophical value of the geometry of these SCZs is that one can estimate (calculate) directly the probability of capture when the h and Q values are within the permissible range for gravitational capture.
I have found that there are four stable capture zones for each planet-planetoid combination: two prograde SCZs and two retrograde SCZs. That is, one can capture a planetoid from an orbit that is slightly larger or slightly smaller than the orbit of the planet and the encounter can be in a counterclockwise direction (prograde) or in a clockwise direction (retrograde) as viewed from the north pole of the Solar System.
Other Problems to be Addressed:
Two other problems that need to be addressed by a Gravitational Capture Model for the Origin of the Earth-Moon System are (1) the place of origin of the pre-capture planetoid (Luna) and (2) the similarity of oxygen isotope ratios of the Earth and Moon. Without going into technical details and to shorten the story considerably, a favorite place of origin at present is inside the orbit of planet Mercury at about 0.1-0.2 AU (astronomical unit). Such a place or origin is compatible with the anhydrous and refractory nature of lunar rocks (no water of hydration). And according to Evans and Tabachnik in a 1999 article in the journal Nature, planetoid orbits can be stable in this region of space for hundreds of millions of years. I think, then that this region is a good source for the formation of refractory planetoids.
The Similarities of Oxygen Isotope Ratios between Earth and Moon:
The problem of the similarity of oxygen isotopes ratios between Earth and Moon is a bit more challenging. It is known that Earth, Moon, enstatite chondrites, and the HED asteroids all have oxygen isotope ratio similarities. Mars and a few other asteroids that we think we have samples from via meteorites, are enriched in the heavier oxygen isotopes. However, there is no known information from Venus or Mercury that would relate to whole body oxygen isotope ratios, and until there is, we will not know what constitutes a trend in the inner solar system. My prediction is that the oxygen isotope ratios for planets Mercury and Venus will be very similar to those of planet Earth and Luna (the Moon).
(NOTE: A good summary and discussion of the oxygen isotope ratios of various solar system bodies as well as information on many other lunar and planetary science topics is found in a book by Ross Taylor published in 2001.)
The X-Wind Model and the Place of Origin of Luna:
Frank Shu [formerly at UC-Berkeley and now at Academia Sinica (Taipei, Taiwan)] has been working on models for the early history of sun-like stars (for example, Lada and Shu, 1990; Shu et al., 1991, Shu et al, 2000, and Shu et al., 2001). The name of the model is derived form the geometry of magnetic flux lines that intersect in the form of the letter “X”. They refer to their model as the X-Wind Model. This X-Wind Model appears to very successfully explain the origin of Calcium-Aluminum Inclusions (CAI’s) in meteorites but has been less successful in explaining the origin of chrondrules. This X-Wind would operate during the early history of the Sun before it settles into the main sequence of burning. There are some high-temperature pulses involved which result from reconnection of solar magnetic field lines and Shu thinks that there is enough energy associated with this flaring action to evaporate Oxygen-16 rich dust near the inner edge of the solar accretion disk and thus enrich this region in Oxygen-16 (light oxygen). I think that this excess O-16 could enrich the preplanetary nebular cloud and subsequent planetoid-building materials, all the way out to the vicinity of planet Earth. A prediction based on the X-Wind Model is that Venus and Mercury would fall along the same oxygen-isotope trend as the Earth and Moon. Thus, there is a possibility that the Gravitational Capture Model may be compatible with the similarity of oxygen-isotope ratio patterns of Earth and Moon.
Planet Venus has about the same radius as Earth and it is just a bit closer to the Sun but it has radically different features. The rotation rate is very slow in the retrograde (counterclockwise) direction, there is virtually no obliquity (tilt angle), and it has a very dense atmosphere composed mainly of carbon dioxide. It also has no old rocks on its surface, nothing older than 1.0 billion years and maybe only one half that age. An obvious question is: why the radical differences between sister planets?
A retrograde capture scenario for planet Venus may help explain the differences. The scenario goes something like this. Planet Venus captures one of these refractory planetoids formed in this belt between Mercury and the Sun into a retrograde orbit. The highly elliptical orbit then circularizes in a few tens of millions of years after capture (mainly due to energy dissipation in the planetoid) and continues to become smaller after circularization (mainly because of rock and ocean tidal energy dissipation mainly in the planet). The time scale of interaction is long (billions of years), but the trend is for the circular orbit to get smaller and smaller as the prograde spin rate of the planet decreases and the tides (both ocean and rock tides) become higher in amplitude and frequency. Eventually, after about 3.0 to 3.5 billion years of orbital evolution, the satellite is in a small circular orbit and stirs the mantle so much, in a unidirectional manner, that the original crust is subducted into the mantle and the planet gets a global resurfacing of basalt. The satellite eventually comes so close to the planet that it is at the Roche limit for a solid body. The satellite breaks up in orbit (within about 1.6 venus radii) and the pieces fall to the surface of Venus via atmospheric drag. The dense atmosphere would consist mainly of carbon dioxide, the main volcanic gas generated by the super (planet-wide) volcanic action. A satellite with about one-half the mass of Earth’s Moon would be sufficient to despin Venus from a primordial rotation rate of about 15 hours/day to zero and then cause it to rotate very slowly in the opposite (retrograde) direction.
If this story holds up for planet Venus, then Earth and Venus have something in common: they both have gravitationally captured satellites. The difference is in the details. Earth captured a planetoid in the PROGRADE direction and Venus captured a planetoid in the retrograde direction. The results for the evolution of the "sister planets" are radically different!
(NOTE: A retrograde capture scenario was first proposed by Fred Singer in a 3-page article in the journal Science in 1970. But I am the only one to pursue the geological consequences of such a retrograde capture scenario.)
Planet Neptune is the most distant gassy planet in the Solar System. It has two satellites that have been known for many years and many smaller one that have been discovered recently via the recent Ulysses mission to the outer planets. Nereid is a small satellite in a large, somewhat eccentric prograde orbit and does not pose much of a problem for explanation. Triton, in contrast, is a large satellite in a small, circular retrograde orbit that is inclined about 20 degrees to the plane of the planets. Triton is a major problem to be explained!
Most investigators agree that Triton was somehow captured into a retrograde orbit. The currently most popular explanation is that published by Peter Goldreich and others in 1989 in the journal Science suggesting that Triton is a product of collisional capture. In this model, planetoid Triton, would just happen to crash into a small existing satellite as it approaches planet Neptune. The orientation of the existing satellite and that of planetoid Triton was just right to take enough energy from planetoid Triton’s orbit to change it from a heliocentric orbit to an elliptical retrograde neptocentric orbit. Then over geologic time the orbit would circularize via tidal dissipation within the body of Triton. The authors’ suggested place of origin of the planetoid is the Kuiper Belt of icy planetoids, which is located just beyond the orbit of Pluto.
My model for the origin of the Neptune-Triton system has much in common with the above model. The difference is in the capture mechanism. It so happens that icy, triton-mass planetoids can have a low Q value at intermediate viscosity conditions just like rocky ones. Numerical simulations of gravitational capture show that it is possible to capture planetoid Triton into a large, but stable, retrograde orbit by way of energy dissipation within the body of Triton during one close encounter with planet Neptune using very reasonable h and Q values for Triton. The SCZs for retrograde capture are fairly large for encounters from either an orbit slightly larger or slightly smaller than Neptune’s orbit. The SCZs for prograde capture, however, are very limited and much more energy dissipation is necessary for prograde capture. Thus, retrograde gravitational capture is highly favored over prograde gravitational capture for a Triton-mass planetoid. After successful retrograde capture, in this model, the highly elliptical orbit then circularizes over a long period of time (billions of years) with nearly 100% of the tidal energy for orbit circularization dissipated in the body of Triton. Rocky planets are poor absorbers of tidal energy because of a high Q value, but gassy planets are even poorer absorbers because the Q values are an order of magnitude higher than those of their rocky relatives. Thus, the orbit of Triton is essentially “frozen” at its present location and the body of Triton will probably not coalesce with Neptune in the history of the Solar System.
Back to Planet Earth:
It appears difficult for planetary scientists (including geologists) geophysicists, astronomers, etc) to think of planet Earth as part of the Earth-Moon system. But the Moon seems to have had a subtle, but emphatic, effect on the history of our planet. For example, the rotation rate on a moonless Earth would be in the range of 12 to 14 hours per day. The tidal mechanism, mainly the ocean tides, has slowed the rotation to the present, very comfortable, 24 hours/day. A number of earth and planetary scientists have also suggested that unidirectional mantle rock convection may cause some unidirectional trends in the movement of tectonic plates. They suggest that these plate movements may be powered by the unidirectional operation of earth (rock) tides (which really have been operating ever since the Moon got associated with planet Earth). An article by Nelson and Temple in the 1972 volume of the Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists is interesting reading. A recent (2000) book by Robert Bostrom (University of Washington) titled Tectonic Consequences of Earth's Rotation is also very interesting reading. The most recent summary of the possible influence of Earth tides on plate tectonics was published by B. Scoppola and others in 2006 in the Geological Society of America Bulletin. [Some of the Biological Consequences caused by the evolution of the Earth-Moon system are covered in a book by Peter Ward (geologist) and Donald Brownlee (physicist) from the University of Washington titled Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe which was also published in 2000.] In general, I think that the study of the subtle rock and ocean tidal effects of the Moon on the Earth (that is, the Evolution of the Earth-Moon System) is a potentially fruitful endeavor!
Planet Orbit - Lunar Orbit Resonances:
Still another interest of mine along the “Rare Earth” theme is on planet orbit – lunar orbit resonances and their possible geological effects on our planet. In recent years I have been working on the long-term tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system from the time of capture (about 3.9 billion years ago) to the present. I am searching for eras in the history of the system in which the lunar orbit may enter into resonances with the orbital motion of planets, mainly Jupiter and Venus. The main concept here is that, for a resonant condition, the period of the perigean (or apsidal) cycle of the satellite (the prograde progression of the position of the moon at perigee) is equal to, or nearly equal to, the period of the heliocentric orbit of the perturbing planet. A four-body (sun, earth, moon, jupiter) numerical program is used for calculation of a Jupiter Orbit—Lunar Orbit resonance. Such an orbital resonance can cause a forced eccentricity of the lunar orbit consequently causing an era of higher than normal ocean and rock tides on both the planet and satellite. For the case of Jupiter this orbital resonance would be most effective when the Moon is at an orbital distance of about 53.4 earth radii (probably between 1.0 and 0.6 billion years before present).
This is a time of significant events in the rock record of Earth: (1) There is good evidence of at least two major “global” glaciations. (2) There is the development of several major continental rift zones. (3) There is a major change in the pathway of organic evolution from an algal-bacterial regime to a world with metazoans.
(NOTE: The first mention of a Jupiter Orbit – Lunar Orbit resonance was mentioned in an article by Peale and Cassen in the journal Icarus in 1978. They did mention, and I am paraphrasing, that if the resonance is stable, there could be significant thermal implications for both Earth and Moon. I am the only one to my knowledge to pursue these geological and lunar ramifications.)
I am also exploring the possible effects of Venus Orbit – Lunar Orbit resonances. These planet orbit—lunar orbit resonances would be somewhat weaker gravitational influences than the Jupiter-powered resonance. If any of these Venus-induced orbit resonances are stable enough over a significant period of time, they could cause a significant increase in eccentricity of the lunar orbit and thus could cause increased rock and ocean tidal activity in the equatorial zone of the planet. The enhanced tidal action, in turn, could cause some favorable environmental conditions for evolution of life forms on the planet during certain eras of our planet’s history. During these eras of increased orbital eccentricity, the global tectonic regime would also be effected by an increase in “tidal vorticity induction”, a process described in Robert Bostrom’s book mentioned above.
The Cool Early Earth Model:
Finally, there is another model in which I have a special interest – The Cool Early Earth Model. John Valley (Univ. of Wisconsin) and coworkers suggest that the near constant range of oxygen-isotope ratios in zircon crystals implies somewhat temperate condition on Earth from about 4.4-2.6 billion years ago). This time-frame includes most of the Hadean Eon as well as all of the Archean Eon. In the article (Valley et al., 2002) the authors question whether the Giant-Impact Model for the origin of the Earth’s moon is compatible with this new information because the putative earth-shattering impact which results in the formation of the Moon must happen and the Earth must cool to a condition where oceans can form (a temperature of about 200 degrees C) before 4.45 billion years ago. Valley et al. (2002) suggest that maybe a planetoid capture model should be considered for the origin of the Earth-Moon system.
(NOTE: In addition to the Valley et al. (2002) article, there is a very well illustrated article by John Valley in the Oct. 2005 issue of Scientific American and there is a good summary of the zircon crystal information in the journal Elements in 2006).
My gravitational capture model which features capture at about 3.9 billion years ago is very compatible with the Cool Early Earth Model. In this capture model the Earth would be moonless from the time of its origin until the time of capture. Thus the planet could accrete, the metallic core could settle to the center of the planet, the planet could cool, and ocean water could gradually accumulate on the surface as the atmospheric temperature decreases. Another factor that could aid in this cooling is that solar radiant energy would be about 20% less during this era than at present. The capture episode would be registered as a high temperature event on the captured planetoid because most of the energy for capture must be dissipated, over a short period of time, in that body. In great contrast, the Earth is a passive bystander in this model. Indeed, the rock and ocean tides on Earth are high and irregular for a geologically brief era, and much of the primitive crust would be recycled into the mantle in the equatorial zone of the planet. But the temperature of the earth’s interior is increased very little by the capture episode and the crust in the polar regions is sheltered from the tidal deformation (which occurs mainly in the equatorial zone of the planet). In other words, surface conditions on Earth are significantly effected, but the thermal regime of the surviving crust (and the associated zircon crystals) as well as the ocean-atmosphere system is not effected significantly.
Five publications that relate to gravitational capture issues:
- Malcuit, R. J., Winters, R. R., and Mickelson, M. E.,1977, Is the Moon a captured body?: Abstracts Volume, Eighth Lunar Science Conference, p. 608-610.
- Winters, R. R., and Malcuit, R. J., 1977, The Lunar Capture Hypothesis Revisited: The Moon, v. 17, p. 353-358.
- Malcuit, R. J., Mehringer, D. M., and Winters, R. R., 1989, Numerical simulation of gravitational capture of a lunar-like body by Earth: Proceedings, 19th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Cambridge Univ. Press and Lunar and Planetary Institute (Houston), p. 581-591.
- Malcuit, R. J., Mehringer, D. M., and Winters, R. R., 1992, A gravitational capture origin for the Earth-Moon system: Implications for the early history of Earth and Moon: in Glover, J. E., and Ho, S. E., eds, The Archaean: Terrains, Processes and Metallogeny: Gelogy Dept. (Key Center) and Univ. Extension, The Univ. of Western Australia, Publication No. 22, p. 223-235.
- Malcuit, R. J., and Winters, R. R., 1996, Geometry of stable capture zones for planet Earth and implications for estimating the probability of stable gravitational capture of planetoids from heliocentric orbit: Abstracts Volume, 27th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Lunar and Planetary Institute (Houston), p. 799-800.
One publication on the retrograde capture of a satellite for Venus:
- Malcuit, R. J., and Winters, R. R., 1995, Numerical simulation of retrograde gravitational capture of a satellite by Venus: Implications for the thermal history of the planet: Abstracts Volume, 26th Lunar and planetary Science Conference, Lunar and planetary Science Institute (Houston), p. 829-830.
Two publications on a capture origin for the Neptune-Triton system:
- Malcuit, R. J., Mehringer, D. M., and Winters, R. R., 1991, Numerical simulation of retrograde tidal capture of a triton-like planetoid by a neptune-like planet: Abstracts Volume, 22nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Lunar and Planetary Institute (Houston), p. 845-846.
- Malcuit, R. J., Mehringer, D. M., and Winters, R. R., 1992, Numerical simulation of retrograde tidal capture of a triton-like planetoid by a neptune-like planet: Two-dimensional limits of a stable capture zone: Abstracts Volume, 23rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Lunar and Planetary Institute (Houston), p. 827-828.
One publication on a Jupiter Orbit – Lunar Orbit resonance model:
- Malcuit, R. J., and Winters, R. R., 2001, A jupiter orbit – lunar orbit resonance model which may relate to Noproterozoic events on Earth and Moon: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with programs (National Annual Meeting), v. 33, no. 6, p. A-143.
One publication relating to the “Cool Early Earth Model”:
- Malcuit, R. J., and Winters, R. R., 2002, The cool early earth model and the lunar capture model: Are they compatible?: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs (National Annual meeting), v. 34, no. 6, p. 273.
Two publications on the capture model and the primitive Earth:
- Malcuit, R. J., and Winters, R. R., 2006, The Cool Early Earth and the Tidal Capture Model: thermal and tectonic effects on Earth and Moon: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs (National Annual Meeting), v. 38, no. 7, p. 386.
- Malcuit, R. J., and Winters, R. R., 2007, Early Archean Ophiolites and the Cool Early Earth: Can they be explained in the context of a Tidal Capture Model for the origin of the Moon?: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs (National Annual Meeting), v. 39, no. 6, p. 333-334.
Other articals/authors referred to in this “soliloquy” on Planetary Science:
- Bostrom, Robert C., 2000, Tectonic Consequences of Earth’s Rotation: Oxford University Press, 266 p.
- Cadogan, Peter H., 1981, The Moon – Our Sister Planet: Cambridge University Press, 391 p.
- Evans, N. Wyn, and Tabachnik, Serge, 1999, Possible long-lived asteroid belts in the inner Solar System: Nature, v. 399, p. 41-43.
- Goldreich, Peter, Murray, N., Longaretti, P. Y., and Banfield, D., 1989, Neptune’s Story: Science, v. 245, p. 500-504.
- Lada, Charles J., and Shu, Frank H., 1990, The Formation of Sun-like Stars: Science, v. 248, p. 564-572.
- Nelson, T. H, and Temple, P. G., 1972, Mainstream mantle convection: A geological analysis of plate motion: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 56, p. 226-246.
- Ross, Martin, and Schubert, Gerald, 1986, Tidal dissipation in a viscoelastic planet, in Proceedings of the 16th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, part 2: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. B91, p. D447-D452.
- Scoppola B., Boccaletti, D., Bevis, M., Carminati, E., and Doglioni C., 2006, The westward drift of the lithosphere: A rotational drag?: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 118, p. 199-209.
- Singer, S. F., 1970, How did Venus lose its angular momentum?: Science, v. 170, p. 1196-1198.
- Shu, F. H., Ruden, S. P., Lada, C. J., and Lizano, S., 1991, Star formation and the nature of bipolar outflows: Astrophysical Research Letters, v. 370, p. L31-L34.
- Shu, Frank H., Najita, Joan R., Shang, Hsein, and Li, Zhi-Yun, 2000, X-Winds: Theory and Observations, in Manning, V., Boss, A. P., and Russell, S. S., eds. Protostars and Planets IV: University of Arizona Press, p. 789-813.
- Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Gounelle, M., Glassgold A. E., and Lee, T., 2001, The origin of chondrules and refractory inclusions in chondritic meteorites: The Astrophysical Journal, v. 548, p. 1029-1050.
- Taylor, S. Ross, 2001, Solar System Evolution: A New Perspective, 2nd ed.: Cambridge University Press, 460 p.
- Valley, J. W., Peck, W. H., King, E. M., and Wilde, S. A., 2002, A Cool Early Earth: Geology, v. 30, p. 351-354.
- Valley, John W., 2005, A Cool Early Earth?: Scientific American, v. 293, p. 58-65.
- Valley, John W., 2006, Early Earth: Elements, v. 2, p. 201-204.
- Ward, Peter D., and Brownlee, Donald, 2000, Rare Earth: Why complex life is uncommon in the Universe: Copernicus (Springer-Verlag, New York), 333 p.
As a community, we commemorate Dr. King and the Civil Rights Movement—the legacy of discrimination that preceded it; the courage of those who stood up to attack it; the progress the nation achieved through it; and the unfinished pursuit of equal rights that continues to this day.
Regina Martin earned her Ph.D. in English from the University of Florida (2010). Her research focuses on 19th- and 20th-century British literature, the history and theory of the novel, and critical and literary theory. She is currently working on a book manuscript that examines British modernism as a historical moment of financial crisis very much like our own. Her scholarly work has appeared in The Eighteenth-Century Novel, Twentieth-Century Literature, and Criticism.
Assistant Professor Jonathan Maskit joined the faculty at Denison in 1996. He earned an A.B. from Vassar College and an M.A. and a Ph.D. from Northwestern University.
Jonathan Maskit teaches courses in aesthetics, continental philosophy, environmental philosophy, the history of philosophy, and others. His research focuses on the relationship between culture, nature, and art drawing particularly on the work of Kant, Heidegger, and Deleuze and Guattari. He is currently working on a book on this theme and has published articles and reviews in Research in Philosophy and Technology, Philosophy & Geography, Ethics, and Canadian Philosophical Reviews. He has also contributed to a number of edited volumes and has seen some of his work anthologized. He has been a visiting scholar at the Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium) and the University of Potsdam (Germany) and has been awarded fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, The Belgian-American Educational Foundation, and The Global Partners Project. He serves as the Reviews Editor for Ethics, Place, & Environment.
At Denison, you will initially continue your high school Calculus education, but you will quickly be exposed to some of the more fascinating questions that really excite mathematicians. Mathematics is the study of abstraction. Mathematicians search for similar patterns in seemingly different settings and then strive to communicate those patterns precisely. Mathematics is a creative process, not a mechanical one.
Sandra Mathern-Smith has been dancing and choreographing for thirty-years and is committed to working collaboratively with improvisation as a performance form. She has had the pleasure of performing and collaborating with veteran improvisers such as Peter Bingham, Karen Nelson, K. J. Holmes, Chris Aiken, and David Beadle, as well as Butoh artist Katsura Kan. Her study of improvisation, including the forms Contact Improvisation, Authentic Movement, and Ensemble Thinking, has been with artist/teachers Danny Lepkoff, Nancy Stark Smith, Julyen Hamilton, Andrew Harwood, Nina Martin, Deborah Hay, and Barbara Dilley. Her work, focusing on collaboration, improvisation, and interdisciplinary projects, has incorporated video-projected backdrops, live music, poetic text, set designs, while working with artists of many disciplines. Contained, an installation piece created for solo performer involving 4 large moving screens with projected imagery and a voice activated environment, was presented at Dartington College, England (2006).
Artist Residencies at the Camac Centre D’Art, France (2012), and at the Atlantic Center for the Arts under Wally Cardona (2010), contributed to the development of Swimming in Green. She was an artist Fellow at the Hambidge Center for the Arts (GA) and a semi-finalist for the Headlands Center for the Arts residency program (CA). Recently, her work was presented at the Conduit Dance Guest Series (OR), the Texas Dance Improvisation Festival, the RAD Festival (MI), and she has been invited as choreographer and teacher to the Nomad Express International Multi-Arts Festival in Burkina Faso, West Africa (2014).
Sandra received an Individual Excellence Award in Choreography from the Ohio Arts Council (2010), has twice received an Ohio Individual Artist Fellowship in Choreography (1993, 1996), and has been awarded over 20-grants for her work from the Ohio Arts Council, Arts Midwest, Target, Greater Columbus Arts Council (OH), Wisconsin Arts Board, and the Portland Metropolitan Arts Commission (OR), among others. She is a Professor at Denison University, Department of Dance, Granville, OH, where since 1988 she has taught courses such as modern/postmodern technique, improvisation, performance, choreography, production, and collaborative art courses employing technology. She received her BA from Portland State University and MFA from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Following a 25-year career in office administration with MetLife Insurance, Jeanne transitioned into higher education, first as administrative assistant in the University Learning Center, a division of student affairs at the University of North Dakota, and then as Tutor Program coordinator in the same department. In 2000, she joined Denison as an administrative secretary in the Office of Alumni Relations, and in 2003, assumed the role of alumni coordinator. She oversees the class and affinity reunion programs, assists with updating DenisonEverywhere.com, and supervises a staff of eight to ten student workers.
Dr. Matthews joined the faculty at Denison in 2001 after completing a four-year post-doctoral fellowship in the Center for Neurobiology & Behavior at Columbia University. He teaches Sensation & Perception, Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Research Methods, and Introduction to Psychology. Seminars he has offered include "Perceptual Learning and Brain Plasticity", "The Cognitive Neuroscience of Music", "Ruining Humor with Science", "Neuroscience and the Liberal Arts", and "NERDs Without Borders". His research addresses issues in human vision and audition, with an emphasis on how these sensory systems improve with training.
Peer Reviewed Journal Articles With Denison Student Co-Authors
9. Matthews N, Welch, L., Festa, E.K., & Clement, A. (2013). Remapping Time Across Space. Journal of Vision. 13(8):2, 1-15. [PubMed]
8. Matthews N, Vawter, M, & Kelly, J, 2012. Right Hemifield Deficits in Judging Simultaneity: A Perceptual Learning Study. Journal of Vision. 12(2):1, 1-14. [PubMed]
7. Kelly J, & Matthews N, 2011. Attentional Oblique Effect When Judging Simultaneity. Journal of Vision. 11(6):10, 1-15. [PubMed]
6. Reardon K, Kelly J, & Matthews N, 2009. Bilateral Attentional Advantage on Elementary Visual Tasks. Vision Research. 49(7), 692-702. [PubMed]
5. Strong K, Kurosawa K, & Matthews N, 2006. Hastening Orientation Sensitivity. Journal of Vision. 6(5), 661-670. [PubMed]
4. Matthews N, Rojewski A, & Cox J, 2006. The time course of the oblique effect in orientation judgments. Journal of Vision. 5(3), 202-214. [PubMed]
3. Matthews N, & Allen J, 2005. The role of speed lines in subtle direction judgments. Vision Research. 45(12), 1629-1640. [PubMed]
2. Saffell T, & Matthews N, 2003. Task-specific perceptual learning on speed and direction discrimination. Vision Research. 43(12), 1365-1374. [PubMed]
1. Stanley R, & Matthews N, 2003. Invalid cues impair auditory motion sensitivity. Perception. 32(6), 731-740. [PubMed]
My interests include classical and contemporary theory, social identity, religion, Protestantism, medical anthropology and sociology, ethnographic writing and poetry, and the American class system. My research and writing focus on four areas: Protestantism in Ecuador, the economic and cultural position of the middle classes in U.S. society, ethnographic poetry, and the history of indigenous medicine in the Republic of Cameroon, West Africa.
I'm a plant evolutionary ecologist with special interests in pollination biology and plant-herbivore interactions. I also am interested in how insect phenology is affected by climate change. I am a big fan of field work and have study sites in Ohio, Arizona, and California. During the Ohio winters, I use manipulative experiments in the greenhouse to answer some of my questions (especially # 2 below).
My current research questions are:
- Does variability in herbivore pressure over time affect the evolution of induced resistance in wild radish?
- How and why do florivores (things that eat flowers) choose what flowers to eat?
- How does florivory affect pollination and fitness in sacred Datura, Datura wrightii, in Arizona?
- What factors are affecting butterfly species richness and diversity in Northern California?
- McCall, A.C., J.A. Fordyce. 2010. Can optimal defense theory be used to predict the distribution of plant chemical defenses? Journal of Ecology 98: 985-992.
- McCall, A.C. 2010. Does dose-dependent petal damage affect pollen limitation in a California annual plant? Botany 88: 601-606.
- Forister, M.L., A.C. McCall, N. J. Sanders, J. A. Fordyce, J.H. Thorne, J. O’Brien, D.P. Waetjen, and A.M. Shapiro. 2010. Thirty years of climate change and habitat alteration shift patterns of butterfly diversity. Proceedings of the National Academies of Science, USA 107: 2088-2092.
- McCall, A.C. 2008. Florivory affects pollinator visitation and female fitness in Nemophila menziesii. Oecologia 155: 729-737.
- Past and current lab members (Senior theses titles are given when appropriate):
- Monique Brown, 2009, worked on how and if past herbivory affects resistance in wild radish
- Josh Drizin, 2009, worked on pollination biology in Echinacea angustifolia
- Stephen Murphy, 2009, Thesis: “The effects of induction on petal palatability in radish”
- Jameson Pfeil, 2009, worked on pollination and seed predation in Echinacea angustifolia
- Colin Venner, 2009, Thesis: “How does pollinator activity affect fitness in Echinacea angustifolia?
- Heather Robertson, 2010, Thesis: “Does petal color affect florivores in wild radish?”
- Caitlin Splawski, 2010, Thesis: “Plant recruitment in a restored prairie in Ohio”
- Luke Avery, 2011, working on why butterfly communities change over time in California
- Grant Adams, 2011, Thesis: “Does variation in herbivore pressure affect the evolution of inducible resistance in wild radish?”
- Kelsy Espy, 2011, Thesis: “Does leaf damage induce resistance in wild radish flowers?”
- Brian Jackson, 2011, Thesis: “How do abiotic factors affect succession on Mt. St. Helens?”
- Eric Thomson, 2011, Thesis: “Floral visitors and florivory in Datura wrightii”
Steve McCarthy has been the assistant men’s soccer coach at Denison since 2012. McCarthy came to Denison after serving as a graduate assistant at Southern Polytechnic State University where he earned his master’s degree in Business Administration. During his tenure at SPSU, the Hornets captured the 2011 Southern States Athletic Conference Tournament title and advanced to the quarterfinals of the NAIA National Tournament. Last year, the Hornets finished with a 17-3-2 record and ranked sixth in the nation.
McCarthy earned a bachelor’s degree in management and leadership from Capital University in 2010. He was a four-year starter and two year captain for the Crusaders. McCarthy helped Capital win two Ohio Athletic Conference regular season titles, one OAC Tournament crown, and earn a berth in the 2009 NCAA Division III Tournament. The two-time All-American still holds the OAC and school record for career goals (69).
Lisa McDonnell teaches courses in Renaissance literature (especially Shakespeare and Renaissance drama) and modern and contemporary drama. Her publications and conference presentations have been primarily in these fields and in feminist pedagogy; her current research focuses on shrew taming in Early Modern England. She is also completing work on interviews with Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright, Tony Kushner, and noted British and American playwrights, Arnold Wesker and Jeffrey Hatcher. Recently, she has served as Denison University's Exchange Fellow with Advanced Studies in England, affiliated with University College, Oxford.
While in England, she conducted research on shrew taming and taught a seminar on the drama of Shakespeare and Webster in three interesting venues: Hall's Croft (Shakespeare's daughter's house), Stratford-upon-Avon; Lord Nelson's house, Bath; and University College, Oxford. She has won a number of awards, including the Folger Institute Fellowship (she was one of five scholars chosen from the United States to study with members of England's Royal Shakespeare Company), a National Endowment for the Humanities Research Grant, a Mellon Foundation Grant for Teaching with Technology, and the Earl Hartsell Award for Excellence in Teaching.
Dr. McFarren holds an M.F.A. in acting from the National Theatre Conservatory in Denver, as well as a Ph.D. in Theatre from the University of Colorado at Boulder. She specializes in the teaching of acting, with an emphasis on teaching the performance of heightened language. She is a member of Actors Equity Association, and has worked professionally since the age of 18. Recent years have seen her perform with the Berkeley and Colorado Shakespeare Festivals, the Denver Center Theatre Company, Germinal Stage (Denver), the Commonweal Theatre Company (Lanesboro, MN), the Creede Repertory Theatre (Creede, CO), and the Bread Loaf Acting Ensemble (Ripton, VT).
She lives in Granville with her husband, artist Mathew McFarren, son, and two impudent dogs.
Courses normally taught: Accounting Survey
Outside Interests: Controller for the Energy Cooperative
Makiva earned a B.A. in sociology/anthropology from Denison University in 2002. She worked in the field of community organizing for five years, where she developed professional skills in areas of fundraising, volunteer recruitment and management, public relations, and grant writing. She returned to Denison in 2008 as assistant director for Reunion and Leadership Programs within the Annual Fund Office and was promoted to director of the Annual Fund in 2010. In her current role, Makiva maintains oversight of all fundraising programs and staff within the Office of the Annual Fund.
Sonya L. McKay, a biophysical organic chemist, is interested in research using NMR and nonnatural amino acids to understand how the molecular level interactions dictated by the primary structure of peptides and proteins influence secondary and tertiary structures and protein folding. She is also investigating the synthesis of a chemically acylated collagen protein for its use as a drug delivery vehicle.
Field of Interest: Investigation of biologically important molecules including peptides and collagen using solid phase peptide synthesis and NMR.
Delta Mu Delta; Gamma Delta Chapter; MVNU
Alpha Chi; National College Honor Scholarship Society; Ohio Delta Chapter; MVNU